Julia Escobar y Juan Martín: “La universalidad 0-3 no se va a lograr sin la Privada”

La Federación de Centros de Educación Infantil está en pie de guerra contra las políticas que desde hace años amenazan a los más de 4.500 centros en toda España y el puesto de trabajo de sus más de 23.000 trabajadores.

Juan Martín y Julia Escobar en la sede de la ACEIM.
JORGE ZORRILLA

La Federación de Centros de Educación Infantil está en pie de guerra contra las políticas que desde hace años amenazan a los más de 4.500 centros en toda España y el puesto de trabajo de sus más de 23.000 trabajadores.

Los centros privados de Educación Infantil están al límite. Una tormenta perfecta puede hacer naufragar un tipo de centro que ha prestado un servicio educativo durante décadas. Entre las amenazas no culpables, la caída de la natalidad o la extensión de los permisos de maternidad y paternidad. Entre las culpables, a juicio de ACEIM, la proliferación descontrolada de oferta pública, la competencia de la Concertada ofertando plazas de 2 años y un modelo de financiación vía cheque-guardería insuficiente e injusto. Julia Escobar y Juan Martín representan la angustia de las escuelas infantiles privadas.

La universalidad y la gratuidad de la Infantil 0-3 es el objetivo. ¿Cómo alcanzarlo?
(Juan Martín) Lo primero es no planteárselo como un todo o nada, no pasar del pago total a la gratuidad total, sino marcar una línea en la que se vaya avanzando.Como se ha hecho, por ejemplo, con los centros públicos de gestión indirecta, en los que los padres van contribuyendo en función de su renta hasta que se ha llegado al punto de la gratuidad. Aquí el mecanismo sería prácticamente el mismo vía cheque a las familias… pero también vía ayuda directa a los centros, como ocurre en el País Vasco. Una cosa está clara: no tiene sentido añadir la coletilla de “Pública”. La universalidad no se va a conseguir sin la escuela privada, que escolariza a más del 50% de los niños. Ninguna Administración tiene la capacidad de poder escolarizar a esos niños.

Y, sin embargo, decís que os sentís como segundo plato…
(Julia Escobar) Es importante que la complementariedad de la dos redes sea real, porque no lo es. Nos estamos encontrando familias que llevan a sus hijos a centros públicos, que no están pagando nada y que su nivel adquisitivo es bueno, mientras que otras, que se han quedado sin plaza, han tenido que recurrir a un privado y pagar la totalidad; incluso nos llegan por Servicios Sociales porque no han tenido plaza pública. Si no hay dinero para una universalización general, lo normal sería empezar por quien realmente lo necesita, independientemente del tipo de centro que elija.”

Si no hay dinero para una universalización general, lo normal sería empezar por quien realmente lo necesita, independientemente del tipo de centro que elija “

Pero el acceso a plazas públicas, ¿no es por renta?
(J.E.) No, accedes por puntos. Por ejemplo, te dan puntos si trabajas y ¿cómo empiezas a trabajar si no has dejado a tu hijo en la escuela?

De modo que eso de la complementariedad y la colaboración pública-privada, ¿es un mito?
— (J.M.) La realidad es que el concepto se ha ido diluyendo poco a poco. Si te das cuenta, en el primer ciclo de Infantil lo público siempre ha sido subsidiario de lo privado. Sin embargo, con el paso del tiempo, se está invirtiendo y ahora es la oferta privada la que está pasando a ser subsidiaria.”

Con el paso del tiempo, las escuelas infantiles privadas estamos empezando a ser subsidiarias de las públicas “

Cuál sería vuestro modelo ideal de financiación?
(J.M.) Un modelo coherente es el del País Vasco. Allí se apoya a las escuelas infantiles con ayudas directas al centro; por otro lado se ayuda a la familia mediante un cheque similar al que tenemos en Madrid; y finalmente le pides un esfuerzo económico a los padres para completar todo eso.

Otra amenaza a vuestros centros es la competencia de la escuela privada y concertada. ¿Qué os parece?
(J.E.) Seamos claros, la ampliación de la oferta de plazas de 2 años ha sido por necesidades económicas, para conseguir llenar el 3-6, que se estaba quedando vacío, no por razones educativas. Ya fue un drama pedagógico que se deshiciera el ciclo 0-6. Esto de ahora es profundizar en el error pedagógico va en contra del niño.

Pero, ¿se les puede prohibir abrir un aula de 2 años?
(J.M) No, claro. Lo que pedimos es que se modifique el artículo 15 de la LOE en dos sentidos. Uno, que se cuente con la iniciativa pública y la iniciativa privada para el 0-3. Otro, que se suprima el punto 4, que establece que se pueden dar los ciclos de forma incompleta e, incluso, una aberración mayor, dar la mitad del curso y sin propuesta pedagógica.

Pero, ¿por qué ese ninguneo hacia vuestros centros por parte de todos los partidos?
(J.E.) Yo creo que para la izquierda nos pasamos porque somos empresas y para la derecha no llegamos porque somos unos autónomos ‘pringaos’.”

Para la izquierda nos pasamos porque somos empresas; para la derecha no llegamos porque somos unos autónomos ‘pringaos’ “

En todo caso, escolarizar 0-3 es tendencia imparable, ¿verdad?
— (J.E.) A partir de un año sí creo que es conveniente para el menor, porque hay una posibilidad de un mayor desarrollo. Todos los estudios científicos lo avalan…

–(J.M.) …pero hay contextos muy distintos y creo que en ningún caso debería plantearse como obligatorio, carece de sentido. Como tampoco tiene sentido el debate sobre si la atención a esas edades es asistencial o educativa. No es asistencial o educativo, es asistencial y educativo.

Escuelas infantiles: la tormenta perfecta

  • Descenso de la natalidad. Coincide con el aumento de la oferta, sobre todo pública. Se promete la gratuidad en 0-3 en centros públicos cuando hoy por hoy las escuelas privadas son el 60%.
  • Proliferación de la Pública. Fomentada por parte de las administraciones autónomas y municipales, sin considerar las plazas ya disponibles en el sector privado.
  • Fraccionamiento del primer ciclo de Educación Infantil, habilitando aulas de 2 años en los colegios concertados o públicos, como en la Comunidad Valenciana.
  • Presupuestos. Insuficientes recursos económicos públicos para los centros y ningún apoyo económico público para la familia.
  • Ampliación de los permiso por maternidad y paternidad.

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